Monday, November 27, 2017
Monday, October 23, 2017
This presentation is based on an article that I wrote for the TESOL Encyclopedia of English Language Teaching. Naturally, it's more complete when delivered live with explanations and examples, as well as with sound and motion, so I hope you have a chance to attend one of my live workshops. Here I offer the slides.
Being able to pronounce clearly is a vital part of oral communication, and teachers play a pivotal role in helping learners establish good habits in both pronunciation and listening discrimination from the beginning. Investing in pronunciation instruction early can give beginners the ability and confidence to speak English clearly and launch them on their language learning journey.
Teachers may wonder how to teach pronunciation to beginners, particularly when faced with so many other objectives in the language curriculum, such as grammar, vocabulary, reading, and composition. Teachers may also lack knowledge and confidence because their training programs did not prepare them to teach pronunciation. Even if they took a course in English phonetics or phonology, what they learned may not have a direct application to what should be taught to enable students to pronounce the language well.
In this talk, I discuss focusing on English learners' spoken intelligibility over accent, the need for good pronunciation in helping a speaker become more intelligible to listeners, the devotion to perception as a means of realizing better pronunciation, the importance of balancing segmental and suprasegmental instruction, and the concept that pronunciation is a physical act such that body work deserves attention. I present some sample tasks for teaching pronunciation to beginners with regard to syllables and stress, rhythm and sentence stress, total physical response, and singing.
For the full article, please see the following:
Chan M. (2018) “Tasks for teaching pronunciation to beginners” in The TESOL Encyclopedia of English Language Teaching, First Edition. Edited by John I. Liontas (Project Editor: Margo DelliCarpini; Volume Editor: MaryAnn Christison and Christel Broady), Hoboken, USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Saturday, September 2, 2017
Teachers at PSLLT 2017 (Pronunciation inSecond Language Learning and Teaching)
conference at the University of Utah
This classroom mixer activity gives students a great number of opportunities to practice listening, speaking, and pronunciation with many interlocutors.
- Speak clearly, listen carefully, ask and answer questions in complete sentences.
- Practice pronunciation, phrasing, stress, intonation, and linking. Oh, and grammar and vocabulary, too!
- Develop fluency and confidence listening and speaking.
- Mix and mingle; travel and talk to as many players as possible.
|Focus: Stress and intonation on phrasal verbs and linking to pronouns|
Prepare the cards
- Consider the age, language proficiency, interests, majors of your students, and/or current theme of study.
- For each mixer set, choose a point of pronunciation and listening for them to practice, ideally something they have been learning, e.g., Yes-no questions, Wh- questions, Questions with two choices/three choices, tag questions; words with /æ/, /ʧ/, plural endings, multiple syllables; separable and/or inseparable phrasal verbs with pronouns; phrases needing linking; short or long sentences, etc.
- Determine the pronunciation point(s), be prepared to inform the students what aspects of language they should concentrate on, and provide examples.
- Write one question on each card (using a pen, typewriter or computer and printer). Use 3” x 5” index cards or paper cut into quarters or smaller strips. Make at least as many cards as students.
Adult learners engaged in a mixer activity
- Have students stand.
- Distribute one card to each student.
- Explain the language objectives and procedure
- Demonstrate asking, answering, and exchanging cards with at least one student.
- Ensure that each student holds a card with a question, turns and faces one other student, and takes turns asking and answering the questions on their partners’ cards. After doing so successfully, these two exchange cards, take their leave, and find another partner, continuing to mix, speak, and listen until the teacher says to stop.
- Circulate, monitor, clarify students’ understanding of the activity, encourage students to speak with other classmates, give assistance, determine when to end the activity, collect the cards, and sum up the learning points.
"Thank you! Let's exchange cards. See you later!"
- Everybody participates; nobody sits out.
- Everybody speaks and listens.
- Everybody has a chance to ask and answer any given question.
- Shy students are not silenced by talkative students.
- Students can learn from each others' responses.
- Students can help and encourage each other.
- Students get acquainted with more classmates, not just the ones they typically sit with.
- Students can get mini-lessons from the teacher or classmates without their misunderstandings, mispronunciations, or other mistakes being broadcast to the whole class.
- If the teacher participates, students can get live interaction with the expert.
Sample question types for pronunciation and listening
Yes-no question intonation
Q: Is there a clock on the wall↗? (Tell students whether to use a short or long answer.)
A: Yes, there is. / Yes, there’s a clock on the wall.
Q: What’s that round thing on the front wall↘?
A: It’s a clock. / That round thing on the front wall is a clock.
Regular past tense endings /t/, /d/, /id/ and linking to “it”.
Q: Did Jack bake the cake? (Answer Yes; use the past tense and a pronoun.)
A: Yes, he baked it. /beykt ɪ t/
Minimal pairs / Target sounds
Q: Which can you eat, a bear or a pear?
A: I can eat a pear, but I can’t eat a bear.
Q: Does Shirley want a shirt? (Answer No; add another statement with /ʃ/.)
A: No, Shirley doesn’t want a shirt. She wants a shawl.
Tag question and listing intonation
Q: Scott has a Volt↗ and a Prius↘, doesn’t he↘? (Answer Yes; add one more.)
A: Yes, he has a Volt↗, a Prius↗, and a Tesla↘.
Observations and suggestions
- If possible, move furniture aside to create space to mix and interact. If the furniture can't be moved, find an area where there’s more space, perhaps at the front of a classroom, or in the hall. For large classes, create more than one group. It’s best not to let students sit, unless their health requires it, so that they can readily turn and move around to find new partners.
- A mixer can be done for any length of time, say, 15-30 minutes. Plan 20-30 minutes for your first mixer activity, depending on the age. language proficiency, and/or physical ability of your students. Shorter sessions are needed after the students have learned the procedure.
- Listening-speaking mixers can be conducted at the beginning, middle, or end of a class. At the beginning can help children transition from reading, writing, or recess to oral/aural language learning. It can help older learners transition from work, child care responsibilities, or other classes to target language learning. In the middle of a long class, a mixer can change the pace and awaken the physical and interactive aspects of language learning. At the end, a mixer can solidify points learned during the day's lesson and leave learners upbeat.
- A relaxed, non-evaluative environment in which students get to interact with many others in the class–not just those who typically sit next to them–can be an incentive to get to class on time (if you do them at the beginning) or stay for the whole class period (if you do them at the end).
- You may be able to use written activities in your textbook, turning them into listening-speaking activities by copying the sentences or editing them into questions on your cards.
- Edit and adapt the objectives for each mixer to your class.
- Decide in advance how much to focus your students’ attention on the language aspects of the questions (for example, stress and intonation) and the interpersonal communication (for example, polite greetings and leave-takings). Vary the focus from one mixer to the next!